Guide Patch Dynamics

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Geomorphology and fish assemblages in a Piedmont river basin, U. David M Walters , David S. Leigh , Mary C. Freeman , Byron J. Freeman , Catherine M. References Publications referenced by this paper. Elemental dynamics in streams. Boundary dynamics at the aquatic-terrestrial interface: The influence of beaver and geomorphology Carol Ann Johnston , Robert J. Characteristics of lotic ecosystems and consequences for future research directions Bernhard Statzner.

Effects of water and substratum nutrient supplies on lotic periphyton growth : an integrated bioassay. Landscape ecology. AND H. Potentials and Limitations of Ecosystem Analysis E. Role of anaerobic zones and processes in stream ecosystem productivity. Each section of student work is introduced by a different and disciplines coherent. Alanna Talty and Phanat Sonemangkhala patiently thread, and the threads are assembled to form sets of images that existed took the graphic design template prepared by Honest Design and made this prior to the studio work, and others created during that time.

The process book a reality. Additionally, we would like to thank the many people who of assembling offered clear as well as unexpected relationships. The gave their time, advice, and criticism in reviewing student presentations. The relationship of the four deserve much of the credit for the work and ideas contained here.

Each thread has key words References and images that are mentioned in the text and threads of other chapters, Appadurai, Arjun. Modernity at Large. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. New York: Viking Press. Castells, Manuel. The Culture of Cites in the Information Age. Felix Guattari: Towards a Transdisciplinary Metamethodology. Angelaki 8: 1. Spaces of Hope. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Sculpture in the Expanded Field. In Mac, M. Opler, C. Puckett Haeker, and P. United States Geological Survey. Why is this research so novel? May , System Shocks-System Resilience. The work here has also benefited from the deep commitment of Drs. Pickett and Mary L.

The link below looks systems work in real time through drawing? It specifically targets the arrows, representing [ ] [ ] flows, that hold the framework together. From this new [ ] creating meaning. As shown in the diagram of meaning, model and diagram, one student project on the far left leads the way forward into our EVOL UTION metaphor Pickett and Cadenasso , when the image, method, theory collective work of critical reorganization of the questions asked of science and practice of a project all translate using one model, it has the potential and design See larger image on pages Roughly ordered, the cycles of ] significant concept.

Translating this to urban design inherently repositions images are; time, information, networks and matter and around again. TU RE of spatial heterogeneities to urban design over the past two years. The metaphorical dimension of Metaphor Model Meaning accomplish planning is as a provocative metaphor that practitioners from the ecosystem concept is often used to connote self-regulation, or a closed Translation Theory both disciplines find compelling.

How does this metaphorical use relate network of energy and matter flow Golley Using such metaphors of to other ways it is used in science, and what does understanding the the ecosystem expresses values in the public discourse about environmental Figure 5. Meaning, model and metaphor S. Pickett We will use the ecosystem concept when we translate rigorously used in design and planning?

How should urban designers use a patch dynamics to the design realm Figure 5. Like all scientific concepts, patch dynamics has three components: a core meaning or definition, a suite of ways to specify the concept in particular Patch Dynamics as Metaphor models or applications, and the already-mentioned metaphorical We see that all ecological concepts will have a core definition, will need dimension.

The metaphorical connotation of any scientific concept allows to be applied through specific models, and will have informal, imagistic the idea to be communicated to the public, to specialists in other disciplines, content as metaphors. How does patch dynamics fit this mold? First, and even to schools of ecology beyond those which generally use it. The term itself suggests images of patchwork known ecological idea, the ecosystem Pickett and Cadenasso We quilts, or mosaics of different colors and patterns of fabric stitched together 17 to form the familiar coverlets of folk origin.

The term also suggests use the ecosystem concept here both because it provides a well-developed example of the dimensionality of ecological concepts, and because it complex configurations of the elements of a pattern, similar to Byzantine 19i chapter is useful in translating patch dynamics to urban design. At its core, the mosaics composed of hundreds of individual tiles. This the shifting patterns of a kaleidoscope.

These images are useful in initiating patch dynamics general definition is specified—or turned into a model—to apply to certain a scientific concept, or in communicating it in vernacular conversation. But situations and collections of organisms found in particular places. For they are not adequate for rigorous quantitative comparison, experimental example, there is the model of ecosystem function at the Hubbard Brook manipulation, and interdisciplinary synthesis.

For this, other dimensions of patch dynamics Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, which allowed the discovery of acid the concept are required. The ecosystems at Hubbard Brook are defined by small watersheds, and are limited underground by a nearly impervious bedrock Likens and Bormann The study of nutrients and chemistry of the Defining Patch Dynamics streams draining each spatially delimited watershed was key to discovering The first step toward scientific rigor is a technical definition that captures the acid rain and learning how it affected ecosystems Likens The third insights of the metaphor Pickett and White Patch dynamics is defined dimension of the ecosystem concept, the metaphor, is used in informal or through three components.

First is the existence of patches—on land or non-specialized communication. These contemporary patch models Rivers Railway result of succession, or as a consequence of the movement of materials, show the many layers of interacting processes that are involved in shifting Hydro Line Park Limit energy, and organisms among them. Third, if individual patches change, mosaic landscapes.

Bormann and Likens use Samples Sites One important feature of the concept of patch dynamics, like many other a related metaphor to capture the images encapsulated in this three-part Iroquois Falls Lakes important ecological concepts, is that it can apply to many different kinds of definition: the shifting mosaic. Of course, not only does the arrangement systems and spatial and temporal scales.

Rather, it can also be used to examine fine-scale shifts in spatial each, and the power of the pairing. Another fine-scale example is the creation of pits and associated mounds by porcupines along a few meters of hillside in a small desert watershed. These Patch Dynamics Models pits and mounds appear and disappear across the desert as porcupines dig Patch dynamics as a general concept alone has little power to advance for bulbs of perennial plants.

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After the porcupine moves on, the pits fill and ecological science. The advance comes in the application of the general the mounds erode. Patch dynamics has even been applied productively to concept in specific models. Models are the tools that put meanings into streams Fisher In the case of patch dynamics, models can exactly quantify 19 patches, assess the processes that occur within patches, determine the fluxes that link them, and identify the boundaries that govern the fluxes. A Framework for Patch Dynamics 21i chapter A pioneering example of a patch dynamic model is the characterization of Part of the way that ecologists specify or translate their general concepts section name the fire dynamics of the boreal coniferous forests of the Boundary Waters into useful, specific models is to employ frameworks Cadenasso and Canoe Area in Minnesota Heinselman This model had as a key others Frameworks link general concepts to specific tools.

A causal patch dynamics component the form of a seemingly simple map, but it was groundbreaking framework is a conceptual structure that enumerates and links the important at the time it was introduced. It depicted how long ago each area of the causes and factors that affect a phenomenon or process of interest. Causal region experienced a fire that destroyed the forest canopy and allowed new patch dynamics Figure 6. Map of time since fire within the Lake Abitibi Model Forest, On- frameworks provide a complete roster of the causes that can explain the trees to establish.

Such maps are the first step in illustrating the extremely tario and Quebec, Canada. By taking cores in old trees, ecologists and forest- phenomenon, and they provide a hierarchical structure to relate general designing ers are able to map the extent of fires of different ages. Younger fires have dynamic nature of this large landscape, and show that all areas had burned consumed some of the area that had belonged to older fires. Over time, the to specific causes. The hierarchical form indicates that the general causes at some time in the past, resulting in a mosaic of forest stands of different mosaic changes as new fires burn the area.

The vegetation structure chang- are broken down into more specific causes that make them up. These es in burned patches through time as a result of succession. The combina- ages. Maps such as this represent a simple patch dynamics model. The general causes apply over large areas Prepared by Dr. Sylvie Gaultier. Used by permission of Natural Resources processes in each patch type. However, to understand Patch Dynamics and times. When scientists build models, they select the components from Creation and alteration of spatial heterogeneity through time patch dynamics, it is sufficient to recognize the appropriate hierarchical level of their causal framework.

Patch change by The patch dynamics framework takes as its focal phenomenon the alteration Mosaic Patch Patch succession focuses attention on within-patch of structure and function of spatial heterogeneity over time. This statement configuration generation change Flux processes. However, patch change can also be describes the highest hierarchical level of the framework, and comprises generated by fluxes of important ecological four more specific processes: 1 mosaic configuration, 2 patch generation, Natural Ecological agents from outside individual patches.

Patch 3 patch change, and 4 flux among patches Figure 7. A causal framework for patch dynamics. The highest level of the framework identifies the phenomenon of inter- organisms or the flux of nutrients or pollutants est as the creation and alteration of spatial heterogeneity of ecological systems through time. The next level identifies the be delineated as patches, and that those patches have a spatially explicit major causes of patch dynamics as mosaic configuration, patch generation, patch change, and the fluxes that connect and across mosaics Cadenasso and others Patch delineation requires that areas affect patches.

Introduction

Although each of the second level causes can be further subdivided into additional, detailed causes, we only Any material, energy, or information that can illustrate that division for patch generation. Patch generation is caused either by natural disturbances or by the engineering differ from one another in structure, composition, or function. Spatially effects of physical or biological factors.

In this way, functions or changes in any one patch patches. Spatially As expected from the definition of a causal explicit models are required to evaluate the effects of neighborhood or 21 framework stated earlier, the general process adjacency of patches. Patch mosaics and volumes can exist on any spatial of patch change is made up of other, more 23i chapter or temporal scale, and these must be defined by the researcher.

We have section name Patch generation refers to all processes that can create new patches in an already mentioned that patch generation area. In ecology, they can be physical forces that destroy existing vegetation can have the component processes of either patch dynamics cover, or generative biological processes that build new structures Pickett disturbance or ecological engineering. In the and others We therefore group patch-forming processes into same way, mosaic configuration may reflect those that are disturbances and those that are the engineering effects of underlying geological or climatic templates.

Any ecologically relevant process can generate patchiness if it Similarly, the detailed processes of succession designing acts differentially and locally across an extensive surface or volume. Perhaps the most familiar species performance - are the subsidiary ecological process of patch change is succession, the change in species Figure 8.

An ecological patch mosaic at the medium scale. This slope in the Negev Desert, Israel, can be conceived of as mechanisms of patch change and are shown composition or architecture of an assemblage of organisms at a site over consisting of two contrasting kinds of patches: rock and soil. These two patch types differ in their role in the water dynamics of the system, with rocky patches shedding runoff water, and soil patches absorbing it. The soil patches come to have more in Figure 9 Pickett and others Succession in turn has many causes, ranging from competition to water available than they would based on rainfall alone, and support diverse communities of annuals and bulb-bearing pe- dispersal to physiological tolerances to the effects of animal consumers on rennials.

Herbivorous animals in turn find high levels of resources available in the soil patches. The intermediate Differential Differential Differential These components themselves constitute a boundary framework which sized branches stand for model types that have Site Availability Species Availability Species Performance is important for design Cadenasso and others This framework and proven to be robust or generalizable in the its implications will be detailed in Chapter V, Boundaries as Structural and Coarse Scale Dispersal Resource Disturbance Rain Availability topic area.

Often the learning that Reproductive Time Rather, frameworks are a part of theory. Theory consists of many more Reproductive Mode results from model rejection or improvement components, such as definitions, assumptions, generalizations, and Stress shows some factor or relationship that had models Pickett and others Enumerating and characterizing all Climate previously been left out of a framework. Thus, Prior Occupants the components of patch dynamics theory and specifying how they are Competitors the cycle of learning by building, testing, and linked to the general framework is beyond the scope of this chapter.

Here Identity correcting models can expand or strengthen Consumers we emphasize that patch models translate the general features of patch Disturbance the frameworks they represent. Resource Base dynamics included in the framework into specific representations of patch Allelopathy structure and change. A baobab tree. Like many trees in arid environments, baobabs lose leaves in drought periods. They may also Cycles lose twigs in especially dry periods, and if large branches are damaged by animals, they may also be lost. However, during Patch dynamics was developed in biological Plant Defense that we would be surprised if new and perhaps seemingly contradictory Patchiness favorable periods leaves are produced again, and new branches are even produced.

Leaves and twigs are produced to capture light and the gain is invested in main- have presented above reflect that origin. If we relationships or incorporating new processes into the framework. What tenance and in the durable woody structure. Leaves and twigs are, however, disposable entities, and if they encounter an unfavorable environment, they are shed to protect the tree as a whole.

If one considers the it turns out that most often it is the models and experiments that are faulty, not the large trunk of a well developed and robust theory. A causal framework for community succession or vegetation dy- framework to be a tree, with the trunk representing the core process, and the designing namics.

References

At the top of the hierarchy, the phenomenon of interest is identi- the merely metaphorical, then we must link the fied. Community dynamics is defined as the change in species composition major limbs representing the primary contributing causes, then the smaller bioecological concept with the phenomena and three dimensional structure over time. Three subsidiary causes result twigs and leaves represent the models and hypotheses that are proposed, in the general phenomenon of vegetation dynamics: differential site avail- of human ecosystems.

We presented the ability, differential species availability, and differential species performance. Just as deciduous trees ecological concept of ecosystem earlier. Now In turn, each of the subsidiary causes is made up of additional factors that lose and replace their leaves in response to drought, so too do frameworks influence it. General explanations of succession reside at the high levels of we are in a position to ask, how do the ideas of elaborate and replace specific models and hypotheses depending on the cause, while very specific, detailed models that apply to specific sites and mosaic configuration, patch generation, patch periods of time incorporate the detailed factors that underlie the subsidiary success of experimental and observational tests.

In other words, the stress of causes Modified from Pickett et al The human ecosystem framework Figure 11 provides for social Human Ecological System could be found within them. Third, ecological functions, the cycles or dynamics of change, and the processes which order Physiological systems were considered to have stable social and institutional relationships. All of these phenomena can act on Individual Organizational equilibrium points, meaning that they would Institutional Natural Resources the ecological and social resources of the resource system. Specific models Environmental Social Cycles Social Order Energy Land have a single, specific composition or behavior of processes and dynamics in urban systems would draw on the human Identity Norms Hierarchy Water Materials that was stable and persistent.

This opened the Nutrients ecosystem framework to select causes from the biological and socio- Age Gender Informal Wealth Power way to the fourth assumption, that ecological Class Formal Socioeconomic Resources economic realms to tie together as multidimensional causes and results of Caste Clan Status Knowledge Information systems were rarely disturbed. If disturbance Territory Population interactions in these complex, coupled biological-social systems.

Labor Capital did occur in an ecological system, it was then Social Institutions assumed to undergo a predictable sequence Are urban systems patchy, and can the models using the integrated Health Human Social System Critical Resources of stages to recover its temporarily lost Justice Faith processes suggested by the human ecosystem framework be applied to Commerece Cultural Rsources Education Organization equilibrium. In other words, when disturbed, urban patch dynamics? We believe they can. Urban systems, which include Leisure Government Beliefs Myth Sustenance systems would exhibit predictable, directional in the broadest sense suburban areas and the exurban fringe, are notoriously Figure The human ecosystem framework.

This hierarchical, causal structure suggests the component structures and successions or recovery dynamics. Finally, patchy. In Figure 12, an area of Baltimore illustrates the point.

Using a new high processes that make up inhabited, built, or managed ecosystems. Of course, such systems have essential biological com- ecological systems were classically assumed categorical resolution classification developed by M. Cadenasso, some ponents that are the foundational resources, but they also reflect social and cultural resources, and possess a social system through which human individuals and various aggregations of people interact and are organized Based on the work of not to include humans.

Ecologists looked far 90 possible categories of urban patches based jointly on built structures, Machlis et al The apparently unaffected by humans. Combining the ecological kinds of systems they studied, and the kinds framework of patch dynamics and the interdisciplinary human ecosystem of processes and interactions they included patch dynamics framework indicates how appropriate the application of patch dynamics is in those studies and models. However, as to urban systems. In the past, due to remote sensing, ecologists discovered ecologists considered the systems they studied to have six key features.

This means that most Figure A patch mosaic from Baltimore, Maryland. Based on a novel classification by M. Cadenasso and others, this always correct. As a result, over the last ten of the material exchanges that were thought to be important took place preliminary patch mosaic was created for an area centered on the Rognel Heights neighborhood. The classification empha- sizes both the built and the natural components of the environment, being based on three dimensions of building type or twelve years, ecologists have articulated a within the system.

This assumption led to the second—that ecological and density, vegetation type and layering, and the presence of massed parking areas. The heterogeneity illustrated by this new paradigm that better fits the facts as they systems were self regulating. In other words, the interactions and limits example is typical of urban areas. Do we Urban Design Patch Dynamics equilibrium seeking or maintaining behaviors that were emphasized in the expect the patch dynamics models of ecology to translate to urban design?

Mosaic Configuration Patch generation Patch change Flux classical paradigm are the dominant force in ecology Pickett and others No. Ecological models appropriately deal with the way that ecologists Natural Patch Patch types Construction Ecologists now recognize the following: measure mosaic configuration, or detect and study patch generation disturbance contrast Patch Organism Flux and change, or evaluate the role of flux across mosaics of patches. Some adjacency engineering Renovation identity 1. Ecological systems can be open to material exchange with other of this may be directly relevant to design when it focuses on the green Geomorphic template Civil engineering Succession Boundary structure systems.

And when it does so, it should be applied. Indeed, Socio-economic Socio-economic disturbances cycles 2. Factors from outside a specified system can regulate system models of urban green patch dynamics are urgently needed to help inform Demolition behavior. Figure A framework for designed patch dynamics. This is an explor- 3. There may not be a single stable equilibrium point for system atory effort to cast the process of urban design in a framework that par- composition or behavior.

However, the patch dynamics of the bulk of the metropolis will require allels that for patch dynamics that has been developed in ecology. Patch mosaics in the urban context will include natural vegetation, streams, lakes, integrated models that explicitly incorporate the structures and processes 4. Disturbance can be a part of the dynamics of a system. Such models are still in their yet developed, infrastructure, landscaped and managed lands, and various 5. Succession or response to disturbance can be highly unpredictable formative stage, but have much promise for the future.

The application kinds of buildings and structures that are the direct product and concern of designers. The social, economic, and cultural causes represented in the Hu- or probabilistic. Either man Ecosystem Framework will have to be accounted for among the lower 6. Humans, including their institutions and behaviors, can be parts of the human ecosystem framework can be modified to specify how design levels of the causal hierarchy. This hierarchy is presented as a skeleton to promote integration and dialogue with designers, not as a complete con- ecological systems.

It is in the context of the new, non-equilibrium paradigm that patch 29i chapter dynamics must be seen. Patch dynamics is a framework and modeling Perhaps the most approachable way to link patch dynamics with design processes is to start with designs as models or designs as parts section name strategy that takes into account the spatial openness and context of ecological systems.

It emphasizes their ability to change and to respond to of more extensive urban patch dynamics. In fact, designs are working or patch dynamics internal and external forces. It is one of the important mechanisms for the hypothetical models of an urban ecological system, or of a small part of an resilience or adaptability of all sorts of ecological systems. In other words, urban ecosystem. If that design has explicitly incorporated and articulated Discipline DisciplineDiscipline Paradigm ParadigmParadigm patch dynamics is one of the key ways that ecologists can see how the non- the concerns of the human ecosystem framework along with an explicit patch dynamics Equilibrium Equilibrium Equilibrium Non-Equilibrium Non-Equilibrium Non-Equilibrium statement of the constraints and drivers of design, then it becomes a model equilibrium paradigm applies to many ecological systems.

Ecology Ecology Ecology Ecosystems Ecosystems in balance Ecosystems in balancein balance Ecosystem Ecosystem resilience Ecosystem resilienceresilience in the same way that ecological propositions and experiments are models. Table 1. An illustrative and speculative relationship between key ideas as- Patch dynamics in ecology has been presented as a core concept, a The component processes would be the spatial configuration of designed sociated with the equilibrium versus non-equilibrium paradigm in ecology framework showing how to generate specific models, and a metaphor that spaces, the modes of creation of designed spaces, the change in designed and in urban design.

We purposefully leave the cell relating the non-equi- reflects the core concept in imagistic terms Pickett and others It also librium paradigm to design principles blank, as a stimulus to dialogue with spaces, and the fluxes that designed spaces participate in, control, and are ecologically motivated urban designers. Because designed spaces are parts of human ecosystems, towns, neighborhoods, and the urban-rural fringe. If this can be achieved, the components of the human ecosystem framework would suggest the the potential of the metaphor of patch dynamics will have been converted subsidiary causes that make up each of the primary component processes.

Bormann, F. Catastrophic Disturbance and the Steady-State in Northern Hardwood Ecologically informed designs could also help bring the seemingly abstract Forests. American Scientist Pickett, K. Weathers, and C. A Framework for a Theory of Ecological context Table 1. The job falls to designers working with the patch dynamics Boundaries. BioScience Fisher, S. Australian Journal framework themselves, or to interdisciplinary teams of designers and of Ecology 23 : Pickett, W. Zipperer, R. Pouyat, and R. Adopting a modern Modern Ecological designs, but to elaborate designs as parts of patch dynamics models.

Landscape and Urban Planning Golley, F. New Haven: Yale University Press. Conclusion Gunderson, L. Holling, and S. Light, editors. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions. New York: Columbia University Press. Designs as models of patch dynamics, where such models serve the needs Heinselman, M.

Journal of of clients and the public and incorporate the best creativity and analysis that Quaternary Research 3: Ecology in the Likens, G. The first is to extend its own explanatory Likens, G. Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem. New York: Springer-Verlag. This means making sure that ecology can explain and understand the Machlis, G.

Patch dynamics - Wikipedia

Force, and W. The Human Ecosystem, 1. Society and Natural Resources Ecosystem as a Multidimensional Concept: Meaning, Model and chapter suburbs, and the exurban fringe. But it also means assuring that concerns of Metaphor. Ecosystems 5: Patch dynamics Pickett, S. Cadenasso, and C. In Hutchings, M. Ecological Consequences of Habitat has a role to play in both of these concerns. For too long, ecologists have Heterogeneity. New York: Blackwell. Collins, and J. Models, Mechanisms and Pathways of Succession.

Botanical them. We hope that patch dynamics can survive as an ecological concept Review But we also hope that patch dynamics Pickett, S. Kolasa, and C. San Diego: Academic Press. Patch Dynamics: a Synthesis. Pages in S. Pickett, editor. The processes in cities Thompson and Steiner Orlando: Academic Press.

Cadenasso, and J. Resilient Cities: Meaning, Models, and Metaphor for designs as ecological systems or parts of ecological systems. Landscape and Urban Planning. In press. Steiner, editors. Ecological Design and Planning. New York: John Wiley and well. Here it is important to recognize a developing concept of ecological Sons. Wu, L. Wallace, and W. Ecological Applications 4: Projects others in critical ways. Urban Legends Symposium. Cell Raw Material The workings of evolution are clearest at the level of genes In trying to draw, describe and understand these landscapes, and individuals and become fuzzier as we move up the chain we are challenged by several questions.

How do we locate col- Organ Building Assembly of organization to groups and populations, to interactions lective resilience? How do social networks connect at multiple between species, and ultimately to ecosystems and the scales? What are the core values which connect them? These Organism Building biosphere. Thus, for long-term research the chal- Supranational Metropolis Commons. What tu cs iel ns s, w nf co ea ow re has social meaning? What is sacred? In addition an Society City ge pro diagram makes spatial the contemporary fields of inquiry into of en m osit photo it proposes that these experimental designs become part of a du for BI GN c human ecosystem dynamics.

Inherent in this matrix is an in- io ergy tio OL large ecological and design lexicon for the selection of multiple SI n Supranational Metropolis n OG DE aerial terconnectedness of scales and the non-linearity of complex Y tools, methods and sites of an experimental ecological design. Socio-Natural System -Petia Morozov. Victoria Marshall, Critic. The elevated high-speed corridors of roads and rail lines bypassed these. This is the landscape that the Gwyns Falls drains into and I was struck by the lack of dialogue between these three systems.

The spatial array of the towers marks this territory of crossing. Each tower is a measure of material that has been discarded and then collected Western Maryland Railway into this downstream location.

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Periodically the towers Maryland Turnpike 95 are emptied and it is possible to see through them, past the stormwater outfalls, and up into the Gwynns Falls Waterview Ave. Worchester St. Cherry Hill Rd. Gwynns Falls Reedbird Rd. Wenburn St. Manokin St. Hanover St. Alluvion St. Monroe St. Bayard Rd. Indiana St. Maisel St. Potee St. Bush St. Erick St. Railway Kent St. Neighborhood Area Besides the creation of job opportunities, a lacking element in the creation of an invisible bridge that Russell Street Maryland Turnpike 95 Waterview Ave.

Firstly the neighborhood inhabitants; to Highway detach the image of agriculture from slavery, sec- ondly the not-neighborhood inhabitants, to SHOW people what is going on, so that a framework for social capital and eventually projects and small un- dertakings are created. Seeing and smelling the polluted bay while visiting Brown Field Abandoned Land Wet Land of buying crabs might inspire people to undertake Middle Branch Park something more that reading about it in one of Out Loop many mailbox brochures, seeing and hearing va- 39 Carroll-Camden Industrial Area cant lots and drug traffic might in a similar way in- Westport Neighborhood fluence peoples discussions or actions.

May Jun. Asparagus Kratma Saini, Spinach Strawberries Understanding that the perception of identity between adjacent Peas Green neighborhoods is something that is not fixed but is based on Cabbage Cherries Sweet individual point of view, this project proposes a new system Beans Snap proposal of legibility based on something that is fixed; a greenway and Raspberries Black and Red Red oak Cherries Sour watershed logic. It is a goal that, by building a new pattern Blueberries black gum of boundaries that overlaps but does not alter the existing Beans Pole Red maple Squash Summer boundaries, space is made for another layer of relationships to Corn Yellow and White Sweet gum green ash emerge, this time in dialogue with the natural processes that act Cucumbers Pickles Cucumbers Black cherry in a neighborhood.

Potatoes Honey Beets canopy layer Taking street trees as infrastructure, I have proposed an extensive Tomatoes Blackberries planting program that arrays fields of species in patches and Peaches corridors. Patches connect existing parks and forest areas. As the Carrots street grid often shifts and the local topography is disorienting, Broccoli amelanchier Okra repetition of a limited palette of tree species acts as a medium Cantaloupes, Plums Peas Black-eyed winterberry to navigate through a neighborhood.

Patches also function as Beans Lima red twigged dogwood a green way for plants, birds and other animals to move among Cider Nectarines ecosystems along yards and streets. These Turnips Apples include: sediment settlement, day lighting the hidden path of Raspberries Red neighborhood water, a marker of a trail head to Gwynns Falls Gourds Sweet potatoes Trail, storage for a street tree water program and a slow water Pumpkins Production of Locality: Urban Development Corn Ornamental recreation park.

Marc Brossa and John Tran, Christmas trees Sod Greenhouse This project is an urban farm infrastructure that engages Neighborhood Conectivities the flow of water as a public amenity. It is an infill planted Pavitrhra Sriprakash, landscape, in which flowering, fruiting, and in particular Located at the mouth of Gwynns Falls where it discharges into the moments of harvest foster shifting perceptions of local Middle Branch, this project is already sited in a place of meeting.

Understood as a spatio-temporal landscape, the The scheme is comprised of terraces of boundary elements that neighborhood is navigated by rhythms of flooding and make connections between the urban stream and the stream draining, harvest and decay, commuting and play. In particular it is the slow deposition of these two streams that allows for new relationships of meeting to emerge, Rather than creating boundaries, this project is made thread43 a this time between people and the two types of water.

Taking the latent section name Hidden by the spaghetti of infrastructure that crosses it and potential of the proposed storm-sewer separation the industrial landscapes that abut it, this project has two sites project by the city of Baltimore, the process of street for spatial and temporal connection that I wanted to engage. To excavation is understood as the first step toward patch dynamics address the upper level, I have proposed a process of cutting away harvesting of urban surface water. This allows for a By keeping an engineering logic of draining, water is place of two times, a new boundary between the slow speed of temporarily stored in the street.

Each farm, created by patch dynamics the highway peak hour and the flow of rainwater. Biodiversity: extinction by numbers. Nature , — Holt, R. Food webs in space: on the interplay of dynamic instability and spatial processes. Amarasekare, P. Spatial dynamics of foodwebs.

McCann, K. The more food webs change, the more they stay the same. B , — Gonzalez, A. The disentangled bank: how loss of habitat fragments and disassembles ecological networks. Hagen, M. Biodiversity, species interactions and ecological networks in a fragmented world. Dobson, A. Habitat loss, trophic collapse, and the decline of ecosystem services. Ecology 87 , — Cagnolo, L. Fenoglio, M. Plant patch structure modifies parasitoid assemblage richness of a specialist herbivore.

Valladares, G. Forest fragmentation leads to food web contraction. Oikos , — Food web structure and habitat loss. Kondoh, M. Habitat fragmentation resulting in overgrazing by herbivores. Levins, R. Some demographic and genetic consequences of environmental heterogeneity for biological control. Hanski I. Metapopulation Dynamics. Nature , 41—49 Bascompte, J. Effects of habitat destruction in a prey—predator metapopulation model. Swihart, R. Effects of habitat destruction and resource supplementation in a predator—prey metapopulation model.

Pillai, P. A patch-dynamic framework for food web metacommunities. Metacommunity theory explains the emergence of food web complexity. USA , — Evolution of dispersal in a predator-prey metacommunity. Scotti, M. Social and landscape effects on food webs: a multi-level network simulation model. Brose, U. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in dynamic landscapes.

B , Carrara, F. Complex interaction of dendritic connectivity and hierarchical patch size on biodiversity in river-like landscapes. Martinson, H. Trophic disruption: a meta-analysis of how habitat fragmentation affects resource consumption in terrestrial arthropod systems. Burgett, A. Landscape context influences the abundance of amphibians and the strength of their food web interactions in small ponds. The dynamics of spatially coupled food webs. Greenleaf, S. Bee foraging ranges and their relationship to body size.

Holyoak, M. Habitat patch arrangement and metapopulation persistence of predators and prey.


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