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You can go to cart and save for later there. Average rating: 0 out of 5 stars, based on 0 reviews Write a review. Tell us if something is incorrect. Book Format: Choose an option. Product Highlights Stability and Transport in Magnetic Confinement Systems provides an advanced introduction to the fields of stability and transport in tokamaks. It serves as a reference for researchers with its highly-detailed theoretical background, and contains new results in the areas of analytical nonlinear theo.

About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information. Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it. See our disclaimer. Customer Reviews. Write a review. FRC instability and transport physics is substantially different from tokamaks, and global FRC energy confinement in the presence of classical ion transport is determined by the electron channel, opening the prospect of radically different FRC electron thermal confinement scaling compared to conventional tokamaks.

The electron energy confinement scaling observed in the MAST and NSTX spherical tokamaks, however, has already shown a favourable scaling with decreasing collisionality 49 , 50 , Ion and electron-scale turbulence with higher density fluctuation levels is observed experimentally in the SOL region just outside the FRC separatrix, where an exponential wavenumber spectrum is measured.

Magnetic-confinement fusion

Linear gyrokinetic simulations show unstable SOL modes in the wavenumber range 1. Benchmarking calculations demonstrate directly the stabilizing effects of both finite Larmor radius FLR and the magnetic field gradient for the SOL modes, with FLR effects reducing the growth rate by more than one order of magnitude. Collisions are also found to reduce the linear instability growth rate substantially in the SOL.

The critical gradient is sufficiently large so that the SOL in a reactor-relevant FRC plasma would remain reasonably narrow and not unduly increase the required device radius. In contrast to tokamak edge and core transport barriers, the FRC transport barrier is localized just outside the separatrix on open magnetic field lines, which terminate in the divertor and are actively biased in a controlled fashion.

The injected plasmoids are produced in the formation sections Fig. The absorbed neutral beam power is 2. Fast ion lifetimes are consistent with classical slowing-down via Coulomb collisions In addition to the primary mirror, secondary mirror plugs are installed shown in Fig. The SOL plasma is terminated axially on floating or biased metallic electrodes located in divertor chambers at a distance of 8. Annular washer plasma guns 25 inner diameter 0.

The plasma guns are electrically floating with respect to the vacuum chamber, producing a negative inwards pointing radial electric field transmitted to the SOL region just outside the FRC separatrix 26 , In a different biasing approach applied more recently, the co-axial endplate inside the gun annular anode is biased negatively at 0.

The backscattered radiation is detected via the same horn antennas monostatic beam optics , at an oblique angle in the toroidal plane. Figure 2a,b illustrate the beam path and scattering geometry for one frequency. The rms density fluctuation level 0. The toroidal wavenumber resolution is primarily determined by the toroidal plasma curvature and the width of the Gaussian probing beams For typical C-2 plasma parameters the X-mode and O-mode cutoff layer positions differ only very slightly as the plasma frequency is much larger than the electron cyclotron frequency.

Fluctuation levels extracted from DBS are calibrated here in an approximate fashion by comparison with line-integrated Far Infrared Scattering data 54 obtained from an FIR chord traversing the plasma tangentially to the separatrix.

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We make the assumption here that the fluctuation spectrum is isotropic in the toroidal and radial direction. The largest contribution to the measured fluctuation amplitude for this FIR chord will come from the vicinity of the separatrix, where the density and density gradient is largest. How to cite this article: Schmitz, L. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

We are also grateful to the TAE shareholders for their continued support. Author contributions L. Gupta 2 and E. Trask 2 contributed to equilibrium, transport and stability analysis for C-2 plasmas. In addition, D. Gupta 2 , W. Peebles 1 , T. Akhmetov 4 , J. Douglass 2 , E. Garate 2 , A.

1. Introduction

Ivanov 4 , S. Korepanov 2 , A. Smirnov 2 , M. Thompson 2 , and E. Trask 2 contributed to the design, construction, operation, campaign planning and execution, and diagnostic development and data interpretation of the C-2 device and its multiple diagnostics. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Nat Commun.

Published online Dec Schmitz , a, 1, 2 D. Fulton , 2 E. Ruskov , 3 C. Deng , 2 T. Tajima , 2, 3 M. Binderbauer , 2 I. Holod , 3 Z. Gota , 2 M. Tuszewski , 2 S. Dettrick , 2 and L. Steinhauer 2. Fulton 2 Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. Deng 2 Tri Alpha Energy, Inc.

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Tajima 2 Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. Binderbauer 2 Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. Gota 2 Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. Tuszewski 2 Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. Dettrick 2 Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. Steinhauer 2 Tri Alpha Energy, Inc.

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Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug 21; Accepted Nov 7. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material.

Associated Data Data Availability Statement The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author on request. Abstract An economic magnetic fusion reactor favours a high ratio of plasma kinetic pressure to magnetic pressure in a well-confined, hot plasma with low thermal losses across the confining magnetic field.

LNF:Plasma Physics - FusionWiki

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Schematic cross-section of the C-2 field-reversed configuration.

Magnetic Confinement of Nuclear Fusion

Figure 2. Schematic of the Doppler backscattering diagnostic. Figure 3. Radial profiles of the normalized density fluctuation level and plasma density. Figure 4. The toroidal wavenumber spectrum of density fluctuations measured via Doppler Backscattering. Figure 5. Radial propagation delay of turbulent structures in the scrape-off layer. Figure 6. Linear instability growth rate and frequency in the scrape-off layer. Figure 7. Effect of finite Larmor radius and magnetic field gradient on stability. Figure 8. Effect of scrape-off layer collisionality on stability.

Critical SOL density gradient We now examine the interaction of the plasma density gradient and the turbulence dynamics in more detail. Figure 9. Figure Density fluctuation level and calculated instability growth rate versus normalized density gradient. Discussion In conclusion, we have presented experimental evidence that ion-scale fluctuations with toroidal scale length on the order of or larger than the ion gyroradius are stable in the core of a large FRC configuration.

Plasma guns Annular washer plasma guns 25 inner diameter 0. Data availability The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author on request. Additional information How to cite this article: Schmitz, L. Footnotes Author contributions L. References Wesson J. Tokamaks 4th edn. Oxford University Press Field-reversed configurations. Fusion 28 , — Review of field-reversed configurations.

Plasmas 18 , Colliding beam fusion reactor. Science , — Instability, turbulence, and enhanced transport in accretion disks. Astrophysical gyrokinetics: kinetic and fluid turbulent cascades in magnetized weakly collisional plasmas. Superflares on solar-type stars. Nature , — Field reversed configuration lifetime scaling based on measurements from the large s experiment.

Bibliographic Information

Fusion 33 , 27—38 Kinetic effects on the convective plasma diffusion and the heat transport. JPSJ 46 , — Fusion Supplement Pt 1 , — Binderbauer M. Turbulent transport in magnetic confinement: how to avoid it. Plasma Phys. Particle confinement scaling in field-reversed configurations. A search for lower-hybrid-drift fluctuations in a field-reversed configuration using CO 2 heterodyne scattering. Fluids 30 , — Collisionless electron temperature gradient-driven instability in field-reversed configurations.

Fluids B1 , Plasmas 17 , A high performance field-reversed configuration. Plasmas 22 , Transport studies in high performance field-reversed configuration plasmas. Plasmas 23 , Gyrokinetic particle simulation of a field reversed configuration. Gyrokinetic simulation of driftwave instability in field-reversed configuration. Ambipolar potential effect on drift-wave mode in a tandem-mirror plasma. Plasma equilibria with multiple ion species: equations and algorithm.

Fusion Sci. Field reversed configuration confinement enhancement through edge biasing and neutral beam injection. A new high performance field reversed configuration operating regime in the C-2 device. Plasmas 19 , A novel, multichannel, comb-frequency Doppler backscatter system. New plasma measurements with a multichannel millimeter-wave fluctuation diagnostic system in the DIII-D tokamak.

Multi-channel Doppler backscattering measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration. Hennequin P. Fluctuation spectra and velocity profile from Doppler backscattering on Tore Supra. Controlled Fusion 46 , S—S Fusion 52 , Turbulent transport reduction by Zonal Flows: massively parallel simulations. Boozer A. Plasma equilibrium with rational magnetic surfaces. Fluids 24 , — Size scaling of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Phys Rev. The local limit of global gyrokinetic simulations.

Plasmas 11 , L25 System size effects on gyrokinetic turbulence. Electron density and temperature profile diagnostics for C-2 field-reversed configuration plasmas. Pastukhov V.

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Collisional losses of electrons from an adiabatic trap in a plasma with a positive potential. Fusion 14 , 3—6